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Modern photographic manipulations are essentially the latest tech versions of the late 19th century "PICTORIALISM" movement.The  philosophy rejects the idea that photographs are merely machines that should only record a scene as it occurs. The resulting images are injected with the photo-artist's emotion and interpretation. These effects are achieved through various in-camera and post editing techniques....or "retouching". It does not make any claim or statement concerning other methodology(s) for making photographs.